Mastering Database Management

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Concurrency Control Techniques

Recovery with Concurrent Transaction

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Keeping and maintaining logs in real time and in real environment may fill out all the memory space available in the system. As time passes, the log file may grow too big to be handled at all. Checkpoint is a mechanism where all the previous logs are removed from the system and stored permanently in a storage disk. Checkpoint declares a point before which the DBMS was in consistent state, and all the transactions were committed.


When a system with concurrent transactions crashes and recovers, it behaves in the following manner −

  • The recovery system reads the logs backwards from the end to the last checkpoint.
  • It maintains two lists, an undo-list and a redo-list.
  • If the recovery system sees a log with <Tn, Start> and <Tn, Commit> or just <Tn, Commit>, it puts the transaction in the redo-list.
  • If the recovery system sees a log with <Tn, Start> but no commit or abort log found, it puts the transaction in undo-list.