BCE-C712 Linux System Administration

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TCP/IP Firewall and IP Masquerade

Methods of Attack

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There are various methods that attackers use to compromise computer systems, networks, and data. Understanding these methods is crucial for implementing effective security measures. Here are some common methods of attack:

1. Malware:

  • Description: Malicious software designed to infiltrate, damage, or steal information from a computer system or network. Types of malware include viruses, worms, trojans, ransomware, spyware, and adware.

2. Phishing:

  • Description: Attackers use deceptive emails or messages to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information (like passwords, credit card numbers) or clicking on malicious links.

3. Social Engineering:

  • Description: Manipulating people into divulging confidential information or performing actions that compromise security. This can include techniques like pretexting, tailgating, and impersonation.

4. Brute Force Attacks:

  • Description: Repeatedly attempting different combinations of usernames and passwords until the correct one is found. It’s an automated method used to gain unauthorized access.

5. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS):

  • Description: Overwhelming a system, network, or website with excessive traffic or requests, making it unavailable to legitimate users.

6. Man-in-the-Middle (MitM):

  • Description: Intercepting and possibly altering communications between two parties without their knowledge. This can be done through techniques like ARP spoofing or DNS spoofing.

7. SQL Injection:

  • Description: Exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications to inject malicious SQL code, potentially allowing unauthorized access to databases.

8. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS):

  • Description: Injecting malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users. These scripts can steal information or perform actions on behalf of the user.

9. Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF):

  • Description: Forcing a user to perform actions on a web application without their knowledge or consent, often leading to unintended consequences.

10. Privilege Escalation:

  • Description: Exploiting vulnerabilities to gain higher levels of access or privileges on a system than originally granted.

11. Eavesdropping/Sniffing:

  • Description: Capturing and monitoring network traffic to gather sensitive information like usernames, passwords, or other data.

12. Zero-Day Exploits:

  • Description: Exploiting a software vulnerability that is unknown to the software vendor. This gives attackers a head start before a patch is available.

13. Malvertising:

  • Description: Spreading malware through online advertisements, often by compromising legitimate ad networks.

14. Physical Attacks:

  • Description: Physically accessing and tampering with hardware or systems. This can include theft, destruction, or manipulation of equipment.

15. Insider Threats:

  • Description: Malicious or negligent actions taken by individuals within an organization. This could be employees, contractors, or business partners.

16. IoT Exploitation:

  • Description: Targeting vulnerabilities in Internet of Things (IoT) devices to gain unauthorized access or control.

17. File Inclusion Attacks:

  • Description: Exploiting vulnerabilities to include files from a remote server, potentially leading to unauthorized access or code execution.

These are just some of the common methods used by attackers. It’s important to stay informed about emerging threats and vulnerabilities to effectively protect against them. Implementing a multi-layered security approach, including firewalls, antivirus software, regular patching, and user education, is crucial in mitigating these risks.